Research

Below are a series of articles with data regarding engineering demographics, trends, engineering occupational outlook, factors that influence a decision to pursue engineering, etc. In addition, we have started a couple of dashboards on the state of diversity in engineering, our Gender Diversity Dashboard, as well as a our Race/Ethnicity Diversity Dashboard.


Education Education
Gender Gender
Race Race/Ethnicity
Attitudes Social Factors
Employment Employment


Education Gender Whitedot Attitudes Employment
Npr
Colleges Have Increased Women Computer Science Majors: What Can Google Learn? NPR explores how Harvey Mudd and Carnegie Mellon have increased female Computer Science majors and what Google and other tech companies might be able to learn from these approaches.
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Searching for Computer Science: Access and Barriers in U.S. K-12 Education Gallup research funded by Google. Among other things, this report highlights that principals and superintendent underestimate the demand for computer science education. Only 7% of principals and 6% superintendents think that parent demand for computer science is high. However, 9 in 10 parents think that computer science education is a good use of school resources, and 91% want their kids to learn more computer science in the future.
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Asee
Engineering by the Numbers 2015 report on engineering demographics by the American Society for Engineering Education (ASEE), which highlights that women now account for almost 20% of bachelors degrees in Engineering, and about 25% of masters degrees. Women are now almost 16% of engineering faculty - a small but growing number. The most common engineering degrees for women continue to be quite different than the most common engineering degrees overall. The most common engineering degrees were Mechanical, Civil, and Electrical Engineering, while the most common degree areas for women were Environmental, Biomedical, and Biological and Agricultural Engineering. The LEAST common degrees for women were Computer, Electrical, and Mechanical Engineering. The portion of engineering degrees awarded to Black/African American students has dropped to 3.5% after hovering between 4 and 5% over the last decade. However, Latino/Hispanic share of engineering degrees continues to rise every year and is now 10%, growing from 6% in 2006.
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Images of Computer Science: Perceptions Among Students, Parents and Educators in the U.S. Gallup research funded by Google to study perceptions about computer science and opportunities to involve more students in computer science. Findings indicate that media portrayals and perceptions among students, parents and educators, often reflect stereotypes about people who engage in computer science. Students, parents and teachers are more likely to say boys are more interested in learning computer science than girls, and that boys are more likely to be successful in it. However, a larger portion of Hispanic parents say girls (39%) are more likely than boys (29%) to be successful at learning computer science. Two-thirds of students and 79% of parents further agree that most people who work in computer science have good-paying jobs. Lower-income parents and teachers at low-income schools are most likely to value formal computer science education.
Education Gender Whitedot Attitudes Employment
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Women Who Choose Computer Science - What Really Matters: The Critical Role of Encouragement and Exposure 2014 Google research publication that identifies the key factors driving women's pursuit of Computer Science as: encouragement from parents and peers, perception of themselves as people who like solving problems, exposure to Computer Science in classes or extracurricular activities, and their perceptions of Computer Science as a career with potential for positive social impact.
Education Gender Whitedot Attitudes Whitedot
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How to interest girls in computer science and engineering? Shift the stereotypes February 2015 article on University of Washington research that showed that inaccurate stereotypes depicting computer scientists and engineers as geeky, brilliant and socially awkward males are a key cause for lack of gender diversity in engineering and computer science.
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The Economic Guide to Picking a College Major September 2014 article by FiveThirtyEight.com, which describes the widely varying economic value of college majors, as well as linkages between different majors and likelihood of unemployment or underemployment.
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Women Are Majoring In The Lower-Paying STEM Fields September 2014 article by FiveThirtyEight.com, which shows that although women make up half of recent Science, Technology, Engineering, and Math (STEM) majors, they are concentrated in the lower-paid STEM majors. The most highly-compensated STEM majors are actually the TEM majors, while Science fields that have more female representation also tend to be lower paying.
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Npr
How One College Is Closing The Computer Science Gender Gap Maria Klawe, President of Harvey Mudd College, talks with NPR about barriers that prevent women from pursuing careers in computing, and what Harvey Mudd has done to explicitly address them. And, they are getting results: 40% of Computer Science majors at Mudd are women, more than any other co-ed school
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Nap
Is American Falling Off the Flat Earth? (2007) National Academies publication on the impact of globalization - specifically, well-educated job candidates from all over the world - on competition for jobs for US workers, and imperatives for US investment in K-12 science and math education as well as basic research
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Intel
Survey of Teens' Perceptions of Engineering A 2011 Intel study identified that exposure to any content about engineering dramatically increases the number of teens, both male and female, who would consider a career in engineering. Financial benefits of an Engineering degree and ability to solve important world problems were key influences that changed their perceptions of what it means to be an Engineer
Education Gender Whitedot Attitudes Whitedot
Girlscouts twitter icon
Generation STEM: What Girls Say About Science, Technology, Engineering and Math (2012) Study by the Girls Scouts Research Institute that aimed to explore how girls can better become engaged in STEM. Among the findings: 74% percent of high school girls across the country are interested in STEM subjects; Girls are interested in the process of learning, asking questions, and problem solving; Girls want to help people and make a difference in the world; Girls who are interested in STEM fields are actually interested in many subjects and career opportunities - STEM is just one area of interest among many.
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And The Highest-Paid College Majors Are… Eight of the top ten highest-earning degrees were Engineering or Computer Science degrees, according to the 2013 report from National Association of Colleges and Employers (NACE), as reported by the Wall Street Journal
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Cbsmw
10 top-paying college degrees for 2012 graduates Seven of the top ten highest-earning college degrees for 2012 graduates were Engineering or Computer Science degrees, according to data from the National Association of Colleges and Employers (NACE), as reported by CBS News
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Asee
Engineering by the Numbers Summary demographic data from 2011 research by the American Society for Engineering Education (ASEE), which highlighted that women account for around 18% of bachelors degrees in Engineering, and that the most common Engineering disciplines pursued by women are quite distinct from the most common fields chosen by men. Also, Black or African American students account have accounted for 4-5 percent of engineering undergraduates since 2002, with no increasing trend.
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Asee
Socioeconomic Trends in Engineering: Enrollment, Persistence, and Academic 2011 research by the American Society for Engineering Education (ASEE) on the relationship between socioeconomic status and engineering enrollment, persistence, and achievement, which highlights that students from lower socioeconomic areas are less likely to pursue engineering and less likely to persist in the degree
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Pbs
Why Engineering, Science Gender Gap Persists 2012 PBS article on gender differences in Engineering and Computer Sciences, and some young women's experiences
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Nsf
Women, Minorities, and Persons with Disabilities in Science and Engineering Statistical data from the National Science Foundation on women, minorities, and persons with disabilities in Science and Engineering, including field of degree and employment status
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Why Are There Still So Few Women in Science? Thought-provoking New York Times article about the experience of women in the sciences and the biases they face. For example, the article references a Yale study that showed that scientists view young male scientists more favorably than women scientists with the same qualifications. The men were more likely to be offered a job - and if offered, received on average a salary $4,000 higher. This compelling article relays some weighty experiences of high-powered women scientists and former scientists.
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Bureau of Labor Statistics (BLS) Occupational Handbook Searchable database of BLS projections regarding the number of jobs, salaries, job growth rates, required degree levels, etc. For example, if you search by the top bracket of median pay for a person with a Bachelor's degree, you can sort by the number of jobs or the jobs growth rate to infer valuable degrees for undergraduates
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Bet
Why Aren't More Blacks Pursuing Math and Science Careers? Interviews conducted by BET with Black Engineering students for their take on why there are not more Black or Latino Engineering students, including lack of role models in the field and other social factors
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Aauw
Where the Girls Are: The Facts About Gender Equity in Education A 2008 study conducted by the American Association of University Women that showed that gender differences in educational achievement vary by race/ethnicity and family income level, and that understanding disparities by race/ethnicity and family income level is critical to understanding girls' and boys' achievement
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Nap
Rising Above the Gathering Storm: Energizing and Employing America for a Brighter Economic Future (2007) Additional National Academies publication on erosion of US marketplace advantages in science and technology and recommendations to strengthen America's technology talent pool and commitment to long-term research
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Bureau of Labor Statistics (BLS) Outlook on Engineering and Architecture Occupations Listing of occupations, job descriptions, degree requirements, and 2010 median pay for both engineering (Bachelor's degree required) and technician (Associate's degree required) roles
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Cnnmoney
Why are there still so few women in science and tech? CNN Money article on demographics of women computer scientists, engineers, and CIOs
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Math, Science Instruction Probed in National Survey of Teachers Science is taught daily at just one in five classrooms at the K-3 level, and less than half of all elementary teachers surveyed feel very well-prepared to teach it
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Thomasnet
Where Are America's Women Engineers? This 2013 article by Thomas Net Industry Market Trends highlights social factors as a likely reason why there are so few woman engineers. For example, the US, Canada, and Australia have similarly low rates of women in STEM fields, but China and India have better records — and the US is behind 13 Muslim countries as well
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Nap
Surmounting the Barriers: Ethnic Diversity in Engineering Education This 2013 article summarizes a workshop conducted by the National Academy of Engineering (NAE) and the American Society for Engineering Education (ASEE), in which they reviewed why attempted efforts to diversify engineering have not achieved hoped-for results. Some reasons included lack of incentives for faculty and institutions, inadequate long-term financial support, and unsupportive culture and environment

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Science is taught daily in just one in five classrooms in the US